Facts about water system - pipes, boilers and plumbing

Dodane: 22-07-2016 11:20
Facts about water system  - pipes, boilers and plumbing plumbers Wandsworth

Pipes facts

A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow ? liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.

In common usage the words pipe and tube are usually interchangeable, but in industry and engineering, the terms are uniquely defined. Depending on the applicable standard to which it is manufactured, pipe is generally specified by a nominal diameter with a constant outside diameter (OD) and a schedule that defines the thickness. Tube is most often specified by the OD and wall thickness, but may be specified by any two of OD, inside diameter (ID), and wall thickness. Pipe is generally manufactured to one of several international and national industrial standards.1 While similar standards exist for specific industry application tubing, tube is often made to custom sizes and a broader range of diameters and tolerances. Many industrial and government standards exist for the production of pipe and tubing. The term "tube" is also commonly applied to non-cylindrical sections, i.e., square or rectangular tubing. In general, "pipe" is the more common term in most of the world, whereas "tube" is more widely used in the United States.


Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pipe_(fluid_conveyance)


Did any accident is needed plumber?

Hydraulics are often enough and require emergency repairs carried out by good professionals. Some failures are very serious, others less problematic, but each time should be conducted very fairly and professionally. These smaller faults often we will be able to fix yourself, but if you've become something more serious, you should call a good service hydraulics. Not every failure will end up pretty large costs or cause difficulties, but if not repaired properly, things can get complicated. So it is better to rely here on the knowledge of experienced plumbers, than to rely on luck, because they often can we make this more difficult.


Superheated boiler

Most boilers produce steam to be used at saturation temperature; that is, saturated steam. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and then further heat the steam in a superheater. This provides steam at much higher temperature, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating plant because the higher steam temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature.citation needed There are several ways to circumvent this problem, typically by providing an economizer that heats the feed water, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. There are advantages to superheated steam that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilization: gains in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There may also be practical limitations in using wet steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high pressure and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.




Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Superheated_steam_boilers