Driving broken car may be dangerous

Dodane: 20-08-2016 15:17
Driving broken car may be dangerous oil for London Taxi

Modernization of the car - is it easy to do?

Much of the information on how to quickly and easily improve the car, gives us the Internet. More and more often, to perform apparently really difficult operations, we do not need any complicated instrumentation, and a lot of ideas not have thought even if it was not a hint from the creators of such creative advice. Interestingly, many of them takes the form of instructional cutscene, making their own eyes, we can see that the presented method regarding clean inaccessible surface or mount useful gadget. Certainly it will convince many a wary viewer that such solutions really apply.


The cylinder head

The cylinder head is attached to the engine block by numerous bolts or studs. It has several functions. The cylinder head seals the cylinders on the side opposite to the pistons; it contains short ducts (the ports) for intake and exhaust and the associated intake valves that open to let the cylinder be filled with fresh air and exhaust valves that open to allow the combustion gases to escape. However, 2-stroke crankcase scavenged engines connect the gas ports directly to the cylinder wall without poppet valves; the piston controls their opening and occlusion instead. The cylinder head also holds the spark plug in the case of spark ignition engines and the injector for engines that use direct injection. All CI engines use fuel injection, usually direct injection but some engines instead use indirect injection. SI engines can use a carburetor or fuel injection as port injection or direct injection. Most SI engines have a single spark plug per cylinder but some have 2. A head gasket prevents the gas from leaking between the cylinder head and the engine block. The opening and closing of the valves is controlled by one or several camshafts and springs?or in some engines?a desmodromic mechanism that uses no springs. The camshaft may press directly the stem of the valve or may act upon a rocker arm, again, either directly or through a pushrod.
Engine block seen from below. The cylinders, oil spray nozzle and half of the main bearings are clearly visible.

The crankcase is sealed at the bottom with a sump that collects the falling oil during normal operation to be cycled again. The cavity created between the cylinder block and the sump houses a crankshaft that converts the reciprocating motion of the pistons to rotational motion. The crankshaft is held in place relative to the engine block by main bearings, which allow it to rotate. Bulkheads in the crankcase form a half of every main bearing; the other half is a detachable cap. In some cases a single main bearing deck is used rather than several smaller caps. A connecting rod is connected to offset sections of the crankshaft (the crankpins) in one end and to the piston in the other end through the gudgeon pin and thus transfers the force and translates the reciprocating motion of the pistons to the circular motion of the crankshaft. The end of the connecting rod attached to the gudgeon pin is called its small end, and the other end, where it is connected to the crankshaft, the big end. The big end has a detachable half to allow assembly around the crankshaft. It is kept together to the connecting rod by removable bolts.

The cylinder head has an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold attached to the corresponding ports. The intake manifold connects to the air filter directly, or to a carburetor when one is present, which is then connected to the air filter. It distributes the air incoming from these devices to the individual cylinders. The exhaust manifold is the first component in the exhaust system. It collects the exhaust gases from the cylinders and drives it to the following component in the path. The exhaust system of an ICE may also include a catalytic converter and muffler. The final section in the path of the exhaust gases is the tailpipe.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine


Driving a motorcycle - not so simple

At least at the beginning of steering a motorcycle can give lessons to the student serving a practical course driving a lot of problems. Of course, as in the case of practical lessons on learning to drive car, also in this case we are dealing with the introduction of the student in handling motorcycle. More problems may occur already during city driving, at a later stage of practical lessons. This is due to the fact that the instructor and student are in different vehicles, usually a motorcyclist driving instructor in the car. Issuing commands and paying attention to mistakes so it can reach out to the student with some delay and it is the source of many problems.